Finding The Best Krill Oil


1. Make sure you buy Antarctic Krill oil

2. Make sure it's the Euphausia species, or E Superba. This is the #1 species of krill

3. Make sure the krill oil has been 3rd party tested. (they will usually brag about it if they have done it.) 

4. Make sure for every 1,000 mg (or two soft gels) you get these numbers or higher:

  • 400 or more phospholipids - per 1,000 mg (2 soft gels)
  • 1.5 mg of naturally occurring astaxanthin - per 1,000 mg (2 soft gels) or more
  • 300 or more omega 3's - per 1,000 mg (2 soft gels)

Brands I trust and recommend:

1. Viva Naturals Premium Antarctic Krill Oil - On Amazon or their website. (buy in 6 pack on their website for best price)

2. Sky Nutritionals - only sold on Amazon. Buy in 3 pack for best price. (When you go to check out it will let you choose the 3 pack.)

3. Neptune Krill Oil - These are the original plank owners who starting bringing us high quality krill oil for the Antarctic Ocean. You can also choose from several choices they offer. On Amazon and their website. 

4. Whole Body Research - Only on their website. Buy in 6 pack for best price. 

*ALL of the above mentioned meet the requirements I have listed for choosing a real high quality omega 3 krill oil product. There are some that I have not listed as well. Just make sure you realize: you get what you pay for. Do not compromise on your health and well being! Your worth it!!! 


We hear a lot about the overwhelming benefits of omega-3 Fatty Acids—TV ads,  infomercials, and grocery store aisles.

But most importantly, doctors all over the country are recommending omega-3 supplementation.

What do they know that the average person doesn’t? 

Well, for a starter, there are currently over 12,300 published medical reports from all over the world touting the health benefits of this amazing Essential Fatty Acid (or EFA).

There are nearly 1,300 on the benefits to the brain alone and over 1,250 on the benefits to the heart.

If fact, when you scan the current published research, you find that there is significantly more information on omega-3s than nearly any other supplement.

Here is a short list of conditions where you will find specific research…


  • Depression 
  • Autism 
  • Dyslexia 
  • Parkinson’s 
  • Bipolar 
  • Alzheimer’s 
  • Anxiety 
  • Schizophrenia 
  • Migraines 
  • Infant Brain Development 


  • Strokes 
  • Heart/Cardiovascular Disease 
  • High Cholesterol 
  • High Blood Pressure 


  • Osteoarthritis 
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis 
  • Arthritis 
  • Osteoporosis


  • Eczema/Psoriasis 
  • Reduced Collagen Production (Wrinkles) 
  • Kidney Inflammation 
  • Asthma 
  • Cystic Fibrosis 
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
  • PMS  Dysmenorrheal (Painful Menstruation) 
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  •  Endometriosis 
  • Colon Cancer 
  • Pancreatitis 
  • Diabetes 
  • Macular Degeneration 
  • Glaucoma 
  • Dry Eyes 
  • Slow Post Surgery Healing  
  • Anti-Inflammatory Diseases 
  • Autoimmune Diseases 
  • Chronic Fatigue 


Our society faces one of the largest health crises in history.

The epidemics and escalating diseases of our day— obesity, diabetes, arthritis, various cancers, Alzheimer’s, depression, ADHD, autism and more—all have two things in common…inflammation and oxidation.

The diseases of our day are sometimes “preventable degenerative diseases.” That is very hopeful news because it implies the question, “How can we control symptoms, prevent them, or even in some cases reverse them?” 


While science has made great advances in helping us live longer; the cheap, empty calories and unhealthy fats we consume in the Western diet, have produced epidemics as serious to our quality of life as any in history.

A hundred years ago, deaths from cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were rare. Now they are not only common but they’re escalating. 

Our ancestors ate foods rich in omega-3 fats from fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and animal protein from animals raised on natural grasses.

We have replaced the healthy foods and lifestyle of our forefathers with highly processed foods, which are much lower in omega-3s.

We may be living longer now but the truth is we’re actually “dying longer” on various “life-support” systems—costly drugs, machines and surgeries. According to recent studies, cardiovascular diseases and Cancers are now the two leading causes of death in most Western nations.

Arthritis afflicts one in three Americans…double those affected only two decades ago. Our degenerative plagues today include arthritis, Alzheimer’s, autism, ADD/ADHD, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, just to name a few.

Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have exploded affecting virtually every function of the body —brain, nerves, glands, skin, digestion, bones, joints, heart, arteries, immune system, etc. 

Research is confirming that in some cases they may be reversible, and the symptoms may be able to be controlled with a high quality, bio-available omega-3 supplement.


One of the most remarkable nutritional discoveries of our time comes from the remote and pristine oceans of the Antarctic where the Euphausia Superba is found. 

E. Superba is a species of small shrimp-like crustacean called krill. Krill is one of the largest biomasses on the planet.

They live in large schools called swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000 to 30,000 per cubic meter.

They are a key species in the Antarctic ecosystem. In terms of biomass, they are probably the most successful animal species on the planet. 


Fish oil has become so important as a source for omega 3's that doctors now can fill out a prescription for it.

However, unlike fish, oil krill oil produces a source of omega-3s that is significantly more bio-available than any other source. 

It is many times more absorbable than fish oils available in retail stores or over the Internet.

For example published medical research shows the antioxidants in E. Superba Extract to be over 48 times more easily absorbed by the body than fish oil.

And, where supplements are concerned, it’s not what you swallow, but what you absorb that counts.

Why is fish oil absorption so low?

Fish oils deliver omega-3s bonded to triglycerides.

Since triglycerides do not dissolve in water, they must be dissolved by bile salts and formed into micelles.

Until they are dissolved they cannot be absorbed through the villi of the small intestines and enter the bloodstream. 

Because this process takes time, the fish oil, in many cases, sits in your digestive system and risks going rancid.

This is why many people experience unpleasant fishy belches.  It is also the reason why much less of the beneficial omega-3s reach the bloodstream.

They simply pass through the digestive tract and are eliminated. 

Once the remaining omega-3s, bound to triglycerides are in the bloodstream, they must be converted to a form that the cells of the body can recognize and use. 

When you take fish oil, the body must convert the triglycerides to phospholipids so they can get through the cell wall and deliver the precious omega-3s to the mitochondria of the cell.

With so much processing needed by the body, very little of the important omega-3s get through.  


Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane made up of phospholipids. 

The cell membrane is the structural skin or outer layer that surrounds the cell. 

If you were to lay out all the cell membranes contained in the cells of the liver alone, the surface area would cover more than 4 football fields. 

Cell membranes line all cells including nerve cells and brain cells. They manage the production of energy in the mitochondria.

This allows the all-important Krebs cycle of energy production to work properly.

The cell membrane is actually a double membrane barrier around the cell. It only allows certain molecules to pass through.


Why phospholipids get through so much quicker and work so much more effectively:

The omega-3s found in krill oil is bonded to phospholipids rather than triglycerides. 

Phospholipids don’t need bile for digestion. They spontaneously form micelles and are dissolved immediately in water passing easily through the villi of the small intestine.

They’re distributed immediately throughout the body by blood plasma and even the lymphatic system. 

Once they reach the cells, they are immediately absorbed through the cell wall and the omega-3 is delivered to the mitochondria. 

When omega-3s are bonded to phospholipids instead of triglycerides, scientists find greater concentrations of omega-3s in the cells of critical organs such as the brain and the liver.

When compared to fish oil, the antioxidant absorbability of krill oil was found to be at least 48 times greater than fish oil on the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbency Capacity) chart.


Finding The Best Krill Oil

Antarctic krill is extracted from fresh, raw krill on floating factories in the pure, pristine waters of the Antarctic.

These floating factories brave the harsh conditions of this untouched part of the world to harvest these amazing animals and keep them alive and fresh under water until they are ready for processing on that same vessel.

This keeps the original bioactive elements in the krill oil at the highest possible potency. 

Antarctic Krill companies such as "Captain Krill" and "Neptune krill Oil" use the Euphausia Superba species of krill.

Many inferior krill products harvest numerous species and combine them before extracting the oil.

Other species don’t have the same properties and benefits as the E. Superba but are more easily harvested and thus less expensive. 

We’ve also learned through recent independent, third party clinical analysis reveals that many other brands of so called “high quality” krill oil dilute the pure oil with other oils, usually plant oils.

This makes it less expensive but also far less effective.  Where your health is concerned, it’s important to know that not all krill oils are equal.

You must know what they contain. As omega-3 products become more popular— especially krill oil—an increasing number of subpar and mediocre products will continue to be introduced into the market.  

Be careful about paying less and saving a few bucks only to get lousy results from taking cheap krill.

I personally recommend Viva Labs Krill Oil, Neptune Krill Oil, Captain Krill, and Sky Nutritionals to name a few. These are high quality brands that deliver results! 


DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid):

Two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Together they are referred to as “omega-3s.”

Phospholipids: These are key structural and functional components of virtually every cell membrane of your body.

Research suggests that omega-3s bound to phospholipids are significantly more bioactive than those bound to triglycerides.

This is the form of omega-3s found abundantly in the E. Superba krill oil extract.

Because it is absorbed so quickly and easily there is no aftertaste, no fishy burp. 

Triglycerides: These are the types of fats your doctor is always trying to get you to lower.

Omega-3 fats bound to triglycerides are mainly extracted from fish body parts and cod liver oil.

These are the kinds of omega-3s you get when you eat salmon and other fatty fish.

As a supplement, they are less effective than the phospholipid type because they through a longer conversion process in the body.

Significantly more is required for the same results, and many of the benefits of omega-3s are wasted in the conversion process. 

Depending on the quality of the fish oil, one omega 3 krill oil capsule could be more effective then up to a dozen fish oil soft gels! 

Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids: Two types of fats we consume in our diets.

We get too many 6's and too few 3's for our own good. Scientists suggest that the ideal ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s should be 1:1.

Most diets today range from 20:1 to 50:1.

Research shows significant health improvement with ratios as high as 4:1. 

The body doesn’t make omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. We must obtain them through the foods and supplements we eat.

The destructive changes in our Western diets in the last century have made it virtually impossible to get enough omega-3s from our food.

Even the most careful diets can offer only tiny quantities of omega-3s bound to phospholipids—the most bioactive form of omega-3s.


Only the best quality supplements may offer the cardiovascular, circulatory, and other health benefits you pay for.

Not all omega-3 supplements are created equal. You need to understand what is in them, the way they are processed, and how bioactive they will be in your body.

As Omega-3 products become more popular, an increasing number of mediocre products are flooding the market.

Many are ineffective, making them largely a waste of money.  

Main differences: 

Make sure the krill oil is Antarctic pure E. Superba extract. While the oil in cheaper brands may be mixed with other marine and plant oils with significantly lower omega-3s, antioxidant benefits and bioactivity.

Some companies will dilute the oil making it less expensive, but also less effective.

The processing of some brands can involve freeze-drying, high temperatures or steam, which further degrades the quality of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients. 


What is Phosphatidylcholine?

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the four phospholipids that make up all cell membranes.

It is one of the most researched of the phospholipids because it has so many benefits.

Of all the phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine is the most important. It makes up the largest percentage of the cell membrane.

Based on many studies and practical application documented in medical journals, health care professionals recommend phosphatidylcholine for the following reasons: 

  • Improves and protects cell membranes damaged by free radicals in the blood, blood vessels, liver, heart, lungs, pancreas and brain 
  • Improves blood flow and circulation 
  • Improved liver and  kidney function 
  • Improved heart function 
  • Boosts immunity 
  • Improves memory 
  • Improves libido and sexual function 
  • Improves fat metabolism by facilitating the movement of fats in and out of the cells 
  •  Improves production of acetyl choline, which is essential for proper nerve and brain function 
  • Decreases cholesterol levels by helping it to dissolve more easily
  •   Detoxifies the cells of the body 
  • Removes cholesterol from the liver 

Improves symptoms for the following diseases:

  • Liver disorders
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
  • Autism
  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Drug-induced liver damage
  • Respiratory distress syndrome
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (dying of bowel tissue cells) 


In this document you have discovered the following benefits of omega 3 krill oil: 

 It offers exceptional value compared with the competition 

You’ve discovered the remarkable health benefits of phosphatidylcholine as a natural constituent in krill oil.

 You have access to the published research abstracts confirming the effectiveness of both omega-3s in general and specifically krill oil (see below)

  • 378 times greater in antioxidant value (ORAC) than Vitamins A and E  
  • 48 times greater antioxidant (ORAC) absorption than fish oil 
  • 21-64% less PMS symptoms including stress compared with fish oil - Altern Med Rev 2003;8(2)-171-179.
  • 38.4% less pain from osteoarthritis compared with a placebo - Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 1, 39-48 (2007) 
  • 39.1% less stiffness from osteoarthritis compared with a placebo - Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 1, 39-48 (2007) 
  • 30.9% less signs of inflammation (lower CRP) - Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 1, 39-48 (2007). 
  • 25.4% lower triglycerides  
  • 44.4% lower LDL cholesterol - Altern Med Rev 2004;9(4):420-428.
  • 6.6% lower glucose 


Here you’ll find an abbreviated list of available omega-3 research. In addition to each study listed, there are many others available.

Just go to, type in the condition you’re researching along with omega-3, and you’ll bring up a list of numerous research documents.

Omega-3s are among the most widely researched and proven supplements we have.

That’s why doctors can actually prescribe an omega-3 supplement.

The American Heart Association recommends that everyone should be taking their omega-3s daily. We strongly agree. 

Here is a sampling of the research:

ADD, ADHD - Richardson AJ, Puri BK. Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.  Intern Rev of Psychiatry, 2006 Apr;1892):155-72. 

Allergies - Arm JP, Horton CE, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on asthmatic responses to antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;81:183. 

Alzheimer’s - British Med J (2002;325:932–3).  

Anti-Inflammatory – Maroon JC, Bost JW.  Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain.  Surg Neurology, 2006 Apr; 65(4):326-31.

Anxiety -  Kidd PM.  Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. University of California, Berkeley,

Arrhythmia - Nair SSD, Leitch JW, et al. CA.  Altern Med Rev 2007 Sep; 12(3):207-27. Prevention of cardiac arrhythmia by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and their mechanism of Atherosclerosis - Von Schacky C, Angerer P, action. J Nutr 1997;127:383-93. Kothny W, et al. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis

Prevention of cardiac arrhythmia by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and their mechanism of Atherosclerosis - Von Schacky C, Angerer P, action. J Nutr 1997;127:383-93. Kothny W, et al. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, Med 1999;130:554-62. 

Arthritis -  Session 3: Joint double -blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Nutrition Society and Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute Symposium on 'Nutrition and autoimmune disease' PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis.  The Proc Nutr Soc 2008 No; 67(4):409-18.

Asthma - Broughton KS, Johnson CS, et al. Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1011–7.

Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome - Bell, J.G., Dick, J.R., et al. (2002) Abnormal fatty acid metabolism in autism and Asperger’s syndrome. In: Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology (2nd edition) “in press”.

Blood Pressure - Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J of Hypertension, 2002, Vol 20, Iss 8, pp 1493-1499. JM Geleijnse, EJ Giltay, et al, Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Div Human Nutr & Epidemiol, POB 8129, NL-6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands.

Bipolar - Stoll AL, Severus WE, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder. A preliminary doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatr 1999;56:407–12. 

Bone Metabolism and bone/joint diseases – Watkins BA, Lik Y, et al.  Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and skeletal health.  Exper Biol & Medi (Maywood).  2001 jun;226(6):485-97.

Bowel diseases – Calder PC.  Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammatory processes and inflammatory bowel diseases.  Molecular Nutr Food Res, 2008 Aug; 52(8):885-97.  PC Calder, Inst of Human Nutr, Univ of Southampton.

Brain Development – Simopoulos AP, Summary of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Dietary Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids: Biological Effects and Nutritional Essentiality, Div of Nutr Sci, Internl Life Sciences Inst Res Foundn, Wash, D.C. 20036.

Cancers: breast, colon and prostate - Zhu ZR, Mannisto JAS, et al. Fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue in breast cancer patients and patients with benign breast disease. Nutr Cancer 1995;24:151-60.

Cardiovascular Disease – Simopoulos AP.  The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. , The Cntr for Genetcs, Nutr & Hlth, Wash, DC. Wrld Rev of Nutr & Dietetics  2009;99:VII-XI. High Cholesterol – Bunea R, Farrah EL, Deutsch L. Assessing the effects of krill oil on blood lipids, specifically total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL.  Altrn Med Rev 2004;9(4):420-428).

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Puri BK. The use of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;70:399–401.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Shahar E, Folsom AR, Melnick SL, et al. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1994;331:228-33.

Collagen production for skin and tissue – Jia Y, Turek JJ. Polyenoic fatty acid ratios alter fibroblast collagen production via PGE2 and PGE receptor subtype response.  Exp Biology & Medicine (Maywood). 2004 Jul;229(7):676-83.

Crohn’s disease -  Mate J, Castanos R, et al. Does dietary fish oil maintain the remission of Crohn’s disease: a case control study. Gastroenterology 1991;100:A228 [abstract].

Cystic fibrosis - Lawrence R, Sorrell T. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cystic fibrosis: evidence of a pathogenic role for leukotriene B4. Lancet 1993;342:465–9.

Depression – Hibbein, JR.  Depression, suicide and deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids in modern diets.  Wrld Rev of Nutr& Dietet, 2009;99:17-30. Epub 2009 Jan 9.JR Hibbein.

Diabetes - Malasanos TH, Stacpoole PW. Biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1160–79.

Endometriosis - Batchelder HJ, Hudson T, et al. Therapeutic approaches to endometriosis. Protocol J of Botanical Med  1996; Spring:25–60.

Eczema - Bjornboe A, Soyland E, et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplement to patients with atopic dermatitis. J Intern Med Suppl 1989;225:233–6.

Epilepsy - Schlanger S, Shinitzky M, Yam D. Diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids alleviates convulsion symptoms in epilepsy patients. Epilepsia 2002;43:103–104.

Glaucoma - McGuire R. Fish oil cuts lower ocular pressure. Med Tribune 1991;Sept 19:25.

Heart - Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA.. 1995;274:1363-1367.

Immune system - Alexander JW. Immunonutrition: the role of omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr 1998;14:627-33.

Infertility, M.R. Safarinejad, "Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma…” Clinical Nutrition .Published 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.07.008. 

Inherited Obesity – F. Massiera, Western diet induces fat mass over generations Journal of Lipid Research doi: 10.1194/jlr.M006866

Insulin Resistance - Kasim SE. Dietary marine fish oils and insulin action in type 2 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci.. 1993;683:250-257.

Joint Pain, back, neck, hips, elbow, knee etc (Kremer, Lipids 31 Suppl: S243247, 1996) (Geusens, Arthiritis Rheum. 37:824-829, 1994) (Kremer, Arthritis Rheum. 38:1107-1114, 1995)  (Uauy-Dagach, R et al, Nutr Review. 54:S102-S108, 1996) (IBID Kremer, 1995).

Kidney disease - Peck LW. Essential fatty acid deficiency in renal failure: can supplements really help? J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:5150-3.

Kidney Inflammation – Friedman AN, Moe SM, et al. Fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acid status and determinants in long-term hemodialysis.  Am J of Kidney Dis, 2006 Jun; 47 (6):1064-71. 

Lupus - Walton AJE, Snaith ML, et al. Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 1991;50:463–6.

Migraine headaches - McCarren T, Hitzemann R, et al. Amelioration of severe migraine by fish oil (omega-3) fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:874.

Multiple sclerosis - Nordvik I, Myhr KM, et al. Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients. Acta Neurol Scand 2000;102:143–9.

Osteoporosis Van Papendorp DH, Coetzer H, Kruger MC. Biochemical profile of osteoporotic patients on essential fatty acid supplementation. Nutr Res 1995;15:325–34.

Painful menstruation (dysmenorrheal) - Harel Z, Biro FM, et al. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:1335–8.

Pregnancy and postpartum support - Olsen SF, Secher NJ, et al. Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2000;107:382–95.

Psoriasis - Bittiner SB, Tucker WFG, et al. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis. Lancet 1988;i:378–80.

Raynaud’s disease - DiGiacoma RA, Kremer JM, Shah DM. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med 1989;86:158-64.

Rheumatoid Arthritis – Astorga A, Cubillos L, et al.  Active rheumatoid arthritis: effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 oils. A controlled double-blind trial]  Revista Medica de Chili,, 1991 Mar; 119(3):267-72.

Schizophrenia - Fenton WS, Hibbeln J, Knable M, Essential fatty acids, lipid membrane abnormalities, and the diagnosis and treatment of Schizophrenia.  Bio Psychiatry 2000  47:8-21.

Skin – Ziboh VA, et al. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites.  Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71 (1Suppl):361S-6S.

Skin/Photosensitivity -Rhodes LE, Durham BH, et al. Dietary fish oil reduces basal and ultraviolet B-generated PGE2 levels in skin and increases the threshold to provocation of polymorphic light eruption. J Invest Dermatol 1995;105:532–5.

Stress and Inflammation Problems - Maes M, Christophe A, Bosmans E, et al. In humans, serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels predict the response of proinflammatory cytokines to psychological stress. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:910-20.

Ulcerative colitis - Stenson WF, Cort D, Rodgers J, et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:609–14.  

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